World's 192nd Country
native name, Crna Gora, translates as "black mountain"
or "black forest," referring to the dark forests
that once covered the slopes of the country’s Dinaric
in Southeastern Europe, is bordered by the Adriatic Sea
to the south, Croatia to the west, Bosnia and Herzegovina
to the northwest, Serbia to the northeast and Albania to
the southeast. Its capital and largest city is called Podgorica.
It was in Podgorica, in an area called “Behind the
Rainbow,” that Dr. Judith Jones collected soil for
Common Ground 191 on January 26, 2007. Dr. Jones explains,
“Behind the Rainbow, the address of my house, is in
the capital of the world’s newest country. Rainbow
is a small American affiliated manufacturer. My house is
behind it so, without a street name of number, ‘Behind
the Rainbow’ is my address, and Montenegro has all
of the potential and promise of a rainbow.”
mountains of Montenegro include some of the most rugged
terrain on the planet, including Bobotov Kuk in the Durmitor
Mountains, averaging more than 2,000 meters in elevation.
The country’s large Karst region is at elevations
of 1,000 meters to 2,000 meters. The Zeta River valley is
at 500 meters.
features the very blue Adriatic Sea, beautiful beaches,
rivers with canyons and clear lakes, such as Skadar Lake,
the biggest lake in the Balkans. In the south, the Bojana
River and the Adriatic Sea have created one of the most
beautiful beaches on the Montenegrin coast, the Big Beach,
13 kilometers long.
park in the north
(Both photos taken by the soil collector)
visit from a U S Ship after Montenegro's independence
the last several centuries, the Orthodox South Slavic, Central
European, and seafaring Adriatic cultures such as the Republic
of Venice have greatly influenced the country.
has many significant cultural and historical sites including
those from pre-Romanesque, Gothic and Baroque periods. The
Montenegrin coastal region is well known for its religious
monuments, including the Cathedral of Saint Tryphon, the
Basilica of St. Luke, Our Lady of the Rocks and the Savina
Monastery, all decorated with numerous medieval frescos.
traditional folk dance of the Montenegrins is the Oro, a
circle dance that involves dancers standing on each other's
shoulders. The country is also traditionally home to many
artists, including Milo Milunovic, Petar Lubarda and Dado
Djuric, and to numerous galleries, theatres, festivals and
other cultural events.
printed word in Montenegro goes way back in history. In
1493, the first printing shop in the Balkans started its
operations there. One year later, its first book was printed.
The country is known for Andrija Zmajevic, the baroque poet
and theologist and for Petrovic Njegos, one of the best
known Montenegrin philosophers.
and Montenegro were represented by one football team in
the 2006 FIFA World Cup tournament. In March 2007, the Montenegrin
National Team came from behind to win against Hungary. In
July 2007, the International Olympic Committee granted recognition
and membership to the newly formed Montenegrin National
Olympic Committee in Guatemala City.
Montenegro’s independence from the Ottoman Empire
was formally recognized in 1878. From 1918 to the present,
the country was a part of Yugoslavia and of the state union
of Serbia and Montenegro. Montenegro, declaring independence
on June 3, 2006, became the newest fully recognized country
in the world. On June 28, 2006, it became the 192nd member
state of the United Nations, and on May 11, 2007.the 47th
member state of the Council of Europe.
AD, the Romans conquered present-day Montenegro. Slavs colonized
the area in the fifth and sixth centuries, forming a semi-independent
principality, Doclea, that had ties with minor Rascia and
end of the 12th century, the country was fully incorporated
into a unified Serbian realm. After the Serbian Empire collapsed
in the 14th century, the country was run by free monarchies,
finally falling to the Ottomans in 1499.
16th century, Montenegro developed unique autonomy, with
local Serb clans achieving a state of freedom. In the 17th
century, the Montenegrins raised numerous rebellions, culminating
in the Ottoman defeat in the Great Turkish War at the end
of that century.
Prince Nicholas, the Princedom of Montenegro succeeded in
the Serbo-Turkish Wars and finally achieved recognition
of independence in 1878. Modernization of the state followed,
culminating with the draft of a Constitution in 1905. Then,
political rifts emerged between the reigning People’s
Party and the minor pro-monarch True People’s Party.
In 1910, Montenegro became a Kingdom. It initiated the Balkan
Wars in 1912 and 1913 in which the Ottomans lost all lands
in the Balkans. In World War I, Montenegro sided with Serbia
against the Central Powers, then suffered a full-scale defeat
to Austria-Hungary in early 1916. In 1918, the Serbian Army
liberated Montenegro, which united with the Kingdom of Serbia.
Montenegro formally became the Zeta Area of the Kingdom
of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. In 1929 it became a part
of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. In World War II, Yugoslavia
was invaded by the Axis Forces. Montenegro became a constituent
republic of the Communist Yugoslavia.
the recent Bosnian and Croatian Wars (1991-1995), Montenegro,
along with Serbian troops, participated in the attacks on
Dubrovnik and Bosnian towns. It conducted persecutions against
Bosniak refugees who were arrested by Montenegrin police
and transported to Serb camps where they were executed.
the government severed ties between Montenegro and Serbia.
Then Montenegro formed its own economic policy, adopting
the Deutsche Mark as its currency. It has since adopted
the Euro. Despite its pro-independence leanings, NATO repeatedly
bombed targets in Montenegro in 1999.
Serbia and Montenegro entered into negotiations regarding
the future status of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
In 2003, the Yugoslav federation was replaced in favor of
a looser state union named Serbia and Montenegro; a possible
referendum on Montenegrin independence was postponed for
a minimum of three years.
union between Montenegro and Serbia was decided by referendum
in May 2006. Serbia, the member-states of the European Union,
and the permanent members of the United Nations Security
Council have all recognized Montenegro's independence, and
removed all remaining obstacles from the country’s
path towards becoming the world's newest sovereign state.
3, 2006, the Parliament of Montenegro declared the independence
of Montenegro, formally confirming the result of the referendum
on independence. Serbia did not obstruct the ruling, confirming
its own independence.
its new independence, there is a growing political movement
in the country toward using Montenegrin, with the Latin
alphabet, as its official language. The Croatian/Serbian
word for “peace” is “Mir.”
the twentieth century, Montenegro experienced a rapid period
of urbanization and industrialization. An industrial sector
based on electricity generation, steel, aluminum, coal mining,
forestry and wood processing, textiles and tobacco manufacture
was built up, with trade, overseas shipping, and tourism
becoming increasingly important by the late 1980s.
disintegration of the Yugoslav market, and the imposition
of UN sanctions in May 1992 caused great economic and financial
distress. Serbia and Montenegro was a confederated union,
which existed between 2003 and 2006. The two republics initially
formed the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1992. The economy
there entered a prolonged decline in 1989 and did not begin
to show signs of recovery until 1995. Then, the NATO bombing
in 1999 of the basic infrastructure of the country and many
factories, as well as a renewed embargo caused a further
huge drop in GDP. Economic recovery began in 2001. As of
January 2005 GDP has recovered to 55-60 percent of its 1990